Sunday, July 26, 2020

What are French House residents doing this summer

What are French House residents doing this summer To give you a flavor (well, many flavors) for what MIT students do with their summers, I solicited updates from the French House mailing list. Without further ado, let me introduce you to Abby B. 17 (recently declared Course 2: Mechanical Engineering) Hey Abby! Where are you as you reply to this email? I am currently replying to you as I eat a brownie from a mug (an activity I highly suggest) in my apartment in Boston, almost directly beneath the Citgo sign. A brownie in a mug! Ill have to try that sometime. What are you doing this summer? This summer I am participating in a UROP through the MIT Energy Initiative, where I am using MATLAB to help develop a mathematical model of the electric properties of carbon nanotube/cement composites. Since carbon nanotubes change resistivity when pressure is applied to them, our hope is to be able to use that property to keep track of how composites containing carbon nanotubes hold up under strain in real-life structures. It would be really useful to know if a bridge or oil well was under too much pressure before it fractured! Wow, saving bridges from collapsing! That sounds a lot more practical than the research I do. Other than protecting travellers and preserving bridges structural integrity, what are your goals for the summer? I had two major goals going into the beginning of this summer. One was to avoid going broke by spending all my money on comic books. The other was to brush up on my French in order to take a French class in the fall. Ive pretty much given up on the first one at this point (I am a shameless comic book addict collector), but Ive found some really neat podcasts from F. Culture and some other French radio stations that are fun to listen to on the way to work! *    *    * Maggie K. 15 (majoring in Course 3: Materials Science Engineering) Maggie! I havent seen you in forever! (Maggie is currently studying abroad in Oxford.) Where are you right now? Sunnyvale, CA What are you doing this summer? Working at HP researching environmentally friendly materials for ITO replacement in touch screens Environmentally friendly! Sounds good to me. Any non-work-related goals for the summer? to beat the hard level on Guitar Hero 3 Nice. Good luck with that. Before we move on, anything else you want to say or share? so I grew up in California and this political ad came out when I was in high school and it is one of the best videos of all time. It is tangentially related because the women the ad supports was the CEO of HP. *    *    * Lisa H. 17 (recently declared Course 6-3: Computer Science) Hey! Congrats on recently declaring your major, and on no longer being a freshman. Since were related, I know the answer to this, but for the other readers: where are you right now? London! And what are you doing this summer, in a nutshell? Im working as a counsellor at a math summer program (Canada/USA Mathcamp) in Portland, Oregon. Ill also be taking advantage of the nearby Pacific Crest Trail to do some backpacking. Cool! Lisa was a Mathcamp-er as a high school student, so its all coming full circle. Any non-work summer goals? Read a little bit everyday :) Anything else you want to say or share? My sister is really awesome. I promise that I didnt write that in myself.   *    *    * Andrei K. 15 (majoring in Course 8 (Physics) with a Minor in Course 21A (Anthropology)) Hi Andrei! Where in the world are you right now? Brewing a bag of Irish Breakfast to be caffeine-ready for the group meeting in the Batman (sic!) Conference Room of Center for Physics of Living Systems in brand new Technology Square next to MIT in Cambridge. Woah, fancy. I hope you enjoy your tea. In the meantime, what are you doing this summer? I am running simulations of stochastic coupled driven chemical reactions and looking whether some kind of adaptation of memory phenomena emerges. We want to find how simple may a system be so that it would be able to adapt to a periodic external drive and extract energy from it, because a system that can effectively suck energy from surroundings can be called somewhat alive (aka life emergence question). Neat! And when youre not tackling the life emergence question, what are you up to? Figuring out what kind of grad school I want to go to, whether it is going to be Physics or something like Mathematical Sociology. On the side, preparing to play Werner Heisenberg in Copenhagen, a Shakespeare Ensembles production of a play about physics, physicists, WWII, nuclear bombs and uncertainty. On the third side, catching up on reading a stack of books in 4 languages (sorry, German, I forgot you). I wish I could read in four different languages. Anything else you want to say or share? Summer, its warm, its nice, embrace it. This is a great time to explore the area you work/live in from a different side. I live now in an MIT independent living group and work in an MIT department, but do not visit the main campus and generally explore other directions of Cambridge and surroundings, which have surprise! real, non-university people, and they are awesome (see picture, sign as not-Andrei). ^ That is not Andrei. *    *    * Brynna D. 17 (recently declared Course 12: Earth Planetary Sciences) Hey, Montréal travel companion! Where are you? In a lab room working on graphs while I wait for my sample to heat in the oven. Side note: I momentarily forgot whether a derivative was dy/dx or dx/dy. Times are rough. I often forget how to take derivatives. Im sorry to break this to you, but it gets worse with age. What are you doing this summer? Im analyzing meteorite samples to figure out the strength of their recorded magnetic field since these meteorites are believed to be from one of the first planetary bodies in our early solar system, so knowing about the magnetic field as these bodies were forming can tell us about the nature of planetary magnetic fields. YAY, meteorites! And YAY, magnetic fields! My own research is on the Milky Ways magnetic ield. Lets compare notes. :) Anyway, goals for the summer that may or may not have to do with meteorites? Go on many bike rides and read many books. Anything else you want to say or share? Cookie hour in the Green Building is a gem. Om nom nom. *    *    * Rashed R. 15 (majoring in Course 2: Mechanical Engineering) Where are you, Rashed? On the way to get ice cream! (Boston, MA) Ooooooh, ice cream. I have some green tea ice cream in the fridge…youre making me feel tempted to go get some. Before I go do that, tell me what youre doing over the summer! Marine robotics, designing batteries, and teaching high school students Underwater robots?! Cool. Any other goals for the summer? To have one of these made by the end of the summer. Post Tagged #French House #New House

Friday, May 22, 2020

Chocolat Movie Review - 1420 Words

Chelsea Tibbetts CMS 202 10/3/12 Beyond the Pane is Pleasure: A Chocolat Review None are allowed to see what Vianne is concocting behind the windows concealed with newspaper. Away from the public eye, Vianne paints the walls of her shop with Mayan designs and places tribal sculptures on the shelves with care. Young schoolboys peek through the miniscule slivers in between the newspaper; their only means to observe the magic happening within its walls. They watch as the grinding of the cocoa beans begins. With a knowing smile Vianne stirs the cocoa into a chocolaty paste, swirling around and around the luscious, thick brown mixture in her cauldron of temptation and passion. Platters are loaded with delights such as†¦show more content†¦The producers include David Brown, Leslie Holleran and Kit Golden. Executive producers are Bob Weinstein, Harvey Weinstein, Alan C. Blomquist and Meryl Poster, with co-producer Mark Cooper. Lively music by Rachel Portman accompanies this adventurous story. The set was cho sen by design producer, David Gropman, in the medieval French town of Flavigny, as well Dijon, France and in the West Country of England. Nominated for five Academy Awards, the film is rated PG-13 and runs for 122 minutes. Leading actors Juliette Binoche, Johnny Depp, Dame Judi Dench, Alfred Molina, Lena Olin, and Carrie-Anne Moss captivate audiences of all ages with this fable-like tale. Chocolat is categorized as a drama and romance, but is set apart for its sub-genre as a â€Å"food film.† In a critical essay by Helene A. Shugart, she argues that food is an outlet to â€Å"engage and assuage anxieties attendant on contemporary cultural ambiguities and permeabilities.† Particularly for this devoutly religious town of 1960’s France, chocolate serves as a medium for a cultural upheaval. Producer Alan Blomquist noticed how ironic it was that â€Å"filming in Flavigny stiffed up its own small-town controversies, including a group of monks who had fears about the film s theme of seeking pleasure in this world rather than waiting for the promise of a better one.† The tone for change was set before the production process began. ThisShow MoreRelatedMarketing Strategies of Godrej6674 Words   |  27 Pagesleast two years. Products and pricing of Godrej Interio Bedroom concept ââ€" ª Royale Linea Matt ââ€" ª Zurina Squadro ââ€" ª Fiona Linea Glossy ââ€" ª Adriana squadron ââ€" ª EROS Flutter ââ€" ª Megnus Chloey ââ€" ª Peare Morpheus ââ€" ª Dark chocolat Price Starts from Rs 450000 to 1200000 and more [pic] Living room concept ââ€" ª Coffee tables ââ€" ª Sofas ââ€" ª Living Room concepts Price Price starts from Rs 280000 to 800000 and more. [pic] Cupboards ââ€" ª Fanfasia ââ€" ª Kreation ââ€" ªRead MoreWhat Happened to Circuit City6945 Words   |  28 Pagesorganization to release 3,400 higher paid employees and replace them with new employees at minimum wage. This hurt the organization as its customer service decreased dramatically following the layoffs. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to review research conducted on the topic of strategic management and then apply that research to a recent situation that occurred within an organization. This researcher will provide research and insights as to what happened at Circuit City Inc. and discuss

Friday, May 8, 2020

Education Policy Is It, Damned Lies, And Education

Most commonly when asked: â€Å"what is education?† the answer usually falls along the line of: attaining knowledge that will be used in one’s future life and helping prepare one for their future. Much like we found when asked the same question in my class, Elementary Education 110: Education Policy: Lies, Damned Lies, and Education. Each student’s answer was similarly along the line of that or relatable to it. However, with such a common, stable, definition or understanding of what education is, education has still been seen to change continuously over the history of the United States with different reforms. Education has been around since the 1600s of American and is very much present now in the 21st century, but due to the fact that there have been so many different reforms throughout time I will only touch on a few. With limitations, I will focus on the first and second Massachusetts Laws (1642 and 1647), the desegregation with Brown v. Board of Education , Balanced Literacy in District 2 of New York, and No Child Left Behind. The purpose of this essay is to analyze what I have found in my research on how the relationship between school and society, and how it has changed in the United States across the Historical Eras. In this analysis, I relate the changing of reforms to Diane Ravitch’s book, The Death and Life of the Great American School System, along with some other resources used in the Education Policy class. Education can be traced back as far as the time ofShow MoreRelatedDrug War Research Paper1354 Words   |  6 Pagesthis essay would be targeting namely those in the lower-middle to higher class. Because this demographic is attending school, all of these people have at least some college education. As for religious and sexual preferences, any and every type is present within this demographic. Because these are college students, education and furthering themselves is of utmost importance to them. College takes time and dedication, so these people are often hardworking. Students are also used to being surroundedRead MoreDemand and Supply of Housing in Australia2556 Words   |  11 PagesEconomic Policy Problem: Demand and Supply The demand and supply of Housing and the Housing affordability in Australia I. Introduction Like all other economies The Australian economy has been affected by the global financial crisis which is now a global economic crisis due the collapse of Lehman Brothers and other financial institutions in US. The consequences of the global economic crisis has been severe and as a result of this the world is in Recession therefore many economies has pushedRead More Inferno as a Manifestation of the Pain of Dante Alighieri Essay1502 Words   |  7 Pagesand religious levels, both deeply woven into the work through allegory. Inferno, written in 1314 by Dante Alighieri, was the first canticle of the Divine Comedy. Dante called it a comedy both because of its happy ending and its style, which lies between that of the tragedy and that of the elegy.(Vossler, 665) Although most respected writers of the time wrote in Latin, Dante wrote the Divine Comedy in the vernacular Italian language so that the common man could read it. The fact that thisRead MoreTougher Sentencing for Drug Crimes3553 Words   |  14 Pages(Lynch Sabol, 1997). Because that was the case, it was basically doomed before it ever got off the ground. There were some strides made, and the war did stop some from using drugs because it provided a lot of education to people who used drugs and who were thinking about using drugs. That education helped these people to make better choices, but only if they took the information to heart and decided that they wanted and needed to quit or stay away from drugs. If they made a commitment to themselves to Read MoreThe History and Future of Poverty Essay3716 Words   |  15 Pagescurrent Republican Contract With America is all too continuous with this villainy.) Religion joined the attack on the poor in a big way. Drawing from Augustinian and Calvinist predestinationist themes, it divided humanity into the saved and the damned. Wealth came to be seen as a sign of Gods favor, and then, of course, in a double whammy, poverty came to be seen as a mark of Gods disgust. Bishop Lawrence of Massachusetts intoned: In the long run, it is only to the man of morality that wealthRead MoreModern Public Relations Of Western Ideology2448 Words   |  10 Pagesto remember that these concepts set forth by individuals such as John W. Hill, manufactures idealistic portrayals of an industry which may or may not actual function within these ideals (Heath Bowen 2002). These variants of Bernay’s â€Å"public be damned† have attempted to legitimize the industry within a moral framework despite critics’ responses that Public Relations is merely lying. (Cutlip et al., 2006). Kantonian principles allow for this evolution of the industry for the betterment of mankindRead MoreGreen Marketing or Greenwashing: Promoting Environmental Initiatives5757 Words   |  24 Pagesto this they have won many awards for their sustainable and environmentally friendly policies e.g. the Green Award in 2009 (CO-OP5, 2012). Conclusion The concepts of green marketing and greenwashing have been analysed. From the research green marketing could be described as: a clear set out plan for a company to help the environment by adapting their businesses to more environmentally friendly policies and is backed up by easily assessable and substantial evidence. Whereas greenwashing wouldRead Moreghjfg6018 Words   |  25 Pagessouls of the dominant world as they discourse with me on weather, weal, and woe are continually playing above their actual words an obligato of tune and tone, saying: My poor, un-white thing! Weep not nor rage. I know, too well, that the curse of God lies heavy on you. Why? That is not for me to say, but be brave! Do your work in your lowly sphere, praying the good Lord that into heaven above, where all is love, you may, one day, be born—white! I do not laugh. I am quite straight-faced as I ask soberly: Read MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words   |  99 Pages a. Business morality b. Charities as businesses 12. Democracy a. Good vs. Bad 13. Social Issues (only stats provided) a. Gender b. Family c. Equality 14. Governance a. World Governance 15. Others a. Cooperation b. Education c. Crime d. Liberty or Security e. Consumerism 1. Media 1a. New vs. Traditional GENERAL Intro: †¢ The first quarter of 2043 will be when the last newspapers land on front process all over America. This is the prediction the author ofRead MoreInstitution as the Fundamental Cause of Long Tern Growth39832 Words   |  160 Pagesinsights about the mechanics of economic growth, it has for a long time seemed unable to provide a fundamental explanation for economic growth. As North and Thomas (1973, p. 2) put it: â€Å"the factors we have listed (innovation, economies of scale, education, capital accumulation etc.) are not causes of growth; they are growth† (italics in original). Factor accumulation and innovation are only proximate causes of growth. In North and Thomas’s view, the fundamental explanation of comparative growth is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of Just in time production methods Free Essays

string(38) " inventory improvements are required\." Introduction Just in time is a ‘pull’ system of production, so actual orders provide a signal for when a product should be manufactured. Demand-pull enables a firm to produce only what is required, in the correct quantity and at the correct time.â€Å"Just-in-time is an inventory system where raw materials are delivered right before they are needed on the assembly line, and finished goods are manufactured just before they are shipped to customers. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Just in time production methods or any similar topic only for you Order Now Just-in-time improves return on investment by substantially reducing overhead cost, limiting quality inspections, and eliminating obsolete inventory†. This means that stock levels of raw materials, components, work in progress and finished goods can be kept to a minimum. This requires a carefully planned scheduling and flow of resources through the production process. Modern manufacturing firms use sophisticated production scheduling software to plan production for each period of time, which includes ordering the correct stock. Information is exchanged with suppliers and customers through EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) to help ensure that every detail is correct. A more specific definition is provided by Calvasina et al. (1989):â€Å"JIT is a system of production control that seeks to minimize raw materials and WIP inventories; control (eliminate) defects; stabilize production; continuously simplify the production process; and create a flexible, multi-skilled work force.† Successful JIT implementation should accomplish two major objectives: improve quality and control the timeliness of the production and delivery of products. (Davy; Monden and Walleigh). (, Accessed on 13th May 2011) JIT is of 2 types which are: JIT production: This where the production of the goods is started only when the customer places the order. In this method there will not be finished good stocks but there will be raw material stocks as the purchasing is carried out in normal way. JIT purchasing: This goes one step beyond the JIT production where the purchasing of raw materials for production is also carried out once the order is placed by the customer eliminating raw material stocks. JIT Concept JIT is a process aimed at increasing value-added and eliminating waste by providing the environment to perfect and simplify the process.JIT in time concept was initiated in Japan making the Toyota as its master piece. JIT is system whether company starts manufacturing/purchasing once the customer orders the good effectively making zero inventories. In other words, in a JIT environment materials are purchased and produced as and when it is needed. The whole idea is based on the phrase provide the goods just in time as promised when the order is placed by the customer. The opposite of the JIT production is known as JIC (Just in case) system where it produces goods for inventory with the intention of having goods just in case a customer places a immediate order. The whole concept of the JIT is differentiated from traditional productions systems using push vs pull systems of production. The push system of production pushes materials to the next stage of the production irrespective of whether time and resources are needed at the next level of production creating lot of inventories at each level of the production flow. The traditional manufacturing organizations adopt push system where they produce for inventory and work in progress. The pull system of production is where the materials are pulled by next level of the production only when is signaled or required by the next stage of production. This drastically reduces the inventory held as it does not keep any work in progress. JIT concept is built based on the concept of pull production which eliminates the total inventory. Source: Kaluarachchi, 2009) Kanban: kanban is a Japanese word which means cards and information will be indicated in that card. Usually information includes serial no. of product identification, the quantity, the required operation and place of enquiry. Kanbans allow to link different production process together (Jarvis, podolsky.s, cheng.t.c.e, 1996). Key elements in JIT One problem with JIT is that it only works well in certain types of organization. The most successful users of JIT are currently car assembly plants, which make large numbers of similar products in a continuous process. You can see why this is, from the following arguments. Every time there are changes to a process, or it switches from making one product to making another, there are delays, disruptions and costs. JIT says that these change waste resources and should be eliminated. The level of production must allow a smooth and continuous flow of products through the process. Each part of the process should be fully utilized, so the process is likely to be a well-balanced assembly line. Deliveries of materials are made directly to the assembly line at just time they are needed. Suppliers must be able to adapt to this kind of operation. Lead times must be short or the delay in answering a request for materials becomes too long. This means working closely with the suppliers and even having hem build facilities that are physically close. As there are no stocks to give safety cover, any defects in materials would disrupt production. Suppliers must, therefore If something goes wrong, people working on the process must be able to find the cause, take the action needed to correct the fault, and make sure that it does not happen again. This needs a skilled and flexible workforce that is committed to the success of the organization. (source:- Donald Waters ( 2002) p.461) Benefits of JIT Manufacturing System The main benefits of JIT have been well famous within the literature. A carefully planned implementation of JIT can directly provide increased teamwork and employee involvement, as the organization works together to find areas of waste to target and work out ways to reduce waste in that area (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2007). This results in a simplification of the inventory management system, as well as business processes involved in inventory management. Supplier relationships and data regarding the business are used to identify specific areas where inventory improvements are required. You read "Analysis of Just in time production methods" in category "Essay examples" Lower stock holding means a reduction in storage space which saves rent and insurance costs Areas previously used, to store inventories can be used for other more productive uses. As stock is only obtained when it is needed, less working capital is tied up in stock. Funds that were tied up in inventories can be used elsewhere. Throughput time is reduced, resulting in greater potential output and quicker response to customers. There is less likelihood of stock perishing, becoming obsolete or out of date Avoids the build-up of unsold finished product that can occur with sudden changes in demand. Defect rates are reduced, resulting in less waste and greater customer satisfaction. Less time is spent on checking and re-working the product of others as the emphasis is on getting the work right first time. (Source: (Accessed on 9th May 2011)) Disadvantages of JIT JIT has many strong points, there are weaknesses as well. â€Å"In just-in-time, everything is very interdependent. Everyone relies on everybody else† (Greenberg, 2002). Because of this strong interdependence with JIT, a weakness in the supply chain caused by a JIT weakness can be very costly to all linked in the chain. JIT processes can be risky to certain businesses and vulnerable to the supply chain in situations such as labour strikes, interrupted supply lines, market demand fluctuations, stock outs, lack of communication upstream and downstream in the supply chain and unforeseen production interruptions. Weakness of Just in time is a high danger plan because scheduling work is short period and the inventory degrees are kept to a minimal degree. In total quality of product is key issue with Just in Time conception. There is little room for mistakes as minimal stock is kept for re-working faulty product Production is very reliant on suppliers and if stock is not delivered on time, the whole production schedule can be delayed There is no spare finished product available to meet unexpected orders, because all product is made to meet actual orders – however, JIT is a very responsive method of production. The key characteristics of JiT 1 The main characteristic of Just – In – Time 1 is to reduce the inventory and the benefits while reducing the inventories. The purpose of Just – In – Time (JIT) is for organizations, aiming to minimize their inventory, to have material that is provided when required for use, minimizing any physical stock that is stored. JIT is not without its challenges, overproduction or procurement of excess material can conceal manufacturing issues or compensate for demand variability and these issues need to be resolved for Just in time inventory to be successful. Just – In – Time (JIT) works in the three types of inventories: 1) Raw Materials: Inventories provide insurance in case suppliers are late with deliveries. 2) Work in process: Inventories are maintained in case a work station is unable to operate due to a breakdown or other reason. 3) Finished Goods: Inventories are maintained to accommodate unexpected fluctuations in demand. JIT Inventory Management Just-in-Time (JIT) inventory management is the process of ordering and receiving inventory for production and customer sales only as it is needed and not before. This means that the company does not hold safety stock and operates with low inventory levels. This strategy helps companies lower their inventory carrying costs. Just-in-time inventory management is a cost-cutting inventory management strategy though it can guide to stock outs. The goal of JIT is to improve return on investment by reducing non-essential costs. Examples: Just-in-time inventory management is used by Toyota Manufacturing as its inventory management system. The basic principle of JIT is â€Å"lean manufacturing† or reduction of inventory. Unlike the traditional accounting notion that considers inventory as adding and storing value, JIT considers inventory as waste and incurring costs. Lean Manufacturing:-Identification and elimination of waste is the central theme of a lean manufacturing production system. Lean manufacturing is a dynamic and constantly improving process dependent upon understanding and involvement by all employees. Successful implementation requires that all employees must be trained to identify and eliminate waste from their work.Waste exists in all work and at all levels in the organization. Seven Types of Waste are:- 1. Over Production:- Producing more than needed and producing faster than needed. Overproduction is to manufacture an item before it is actually required. Overproduction is highly costly to a manufacturing plant because it prohibits the smooth flow of materials and actually degrades quality and productivity. The Toyota Production System is also referred to as â€Å"Just in Time† (JIT) because every item is made just as it is needed. Overproduction manufacturing is referred to as â€Å"Just in Case.† This creates excessive lead times, results in high storage costs, and makes it difficult to detect defects. The simple solution to overproduction is turning off the tap; this requires a lot of courage because the problems that overproduction is hiding will be revealed. The concept is to schedule and produce only what can be immediately sold/shipped and improve machine changeover/set-up capability. Over-production results in higher costs for storage, Lack of Communication, Local Optimization, Automation in the Wrong Places, Cost Accounting Practices and Lack of Stable/Consistent Schedules excessive lead times, and it makes detecting the defects quite difficult. The solution for over-production is to stop producing materials and only produce what can be immediately sold or shipped. Poor information flow is another reason that over-production occurs, hence why communication is so important in the lean manufacturing process. 2. Unnecessary Inventory :- Work in Progress (WIP) is a direct result of overproduction and waiting. Having excessive inventory will lead to increased lead times, limited floor space, and poor communication. Too much inventory often masks problems from other areas as well. Generally an arrival of inventory can be traced to poor communication and batch processing. By achieving a unspoiled flow between work centres, many manufacturers have been able to improve customer service and slash inventories and their associated costs. 3. Waiting Times:- Whenever goods are not moving or being processed, the waste of waiting occurs. Delay refers to the waste of goods that are not moving. As you already may be aware, much of a product’s life is spent waiting for the next phase. The reason this is considered a waste is because the good should never be waiting. If they are waiting it is due to poor material flow, long production runs, and distances between work centres are too great. Goldratt (Theory of Constraints) has stated many times that one hour lost in a bottleneck process is one hour lost to the entire factory’s output, which can never be recovered. Linking processes together so that one feeds directly into the next can dramatically reduce waiting. (source: 4. Inefficient Transporting :- Moving your product from one location adds no value to your product. Many products are damaged or lost, casing a waste of money. Transporting also requires the use of material handlers, and this also adds no value to the product. This is one waste that is difficult to reduce or eliminate. Material handlers must be used to transport the materials, resulting in another organizational cost that adds no customer value. Transportation can be difficult to reduce due to the perceived costs of moving equipment and processes closer together. Furthermore, it is often hard to determine which processes should be next to each other. Mapping the flow of your product may be one way you can gain a greater understanding of the transportation phase and learn how to reduce the costs. 5. Unnecessary / Excess Motion This waste is related to ergonomics and is seen in all instances of bending, stretching, walking, lifting, and reaching. These are also health and safety issues, Often the motion is not due to the employees behaviour, but the machine they are operating may be manufactured poorly and the employee is unable to turn a knob (or something similar) without using poor ergonomics. This waste leads to health and safety issues, which obviously lead to bigger problems in today’s controversial society. Causes for excess motion is Equipment, Office Plant Layout, Lack of 5 S’s, Lack of Visual Controls, Inconsistent Work Methods (Standardized Work), Large Batch Sizes. 6. Inappropriate Processing:- Several companies purchase high precision equipment to do a simple job. High precision equipment often leads to over-production of goods. This can also encompass using the wrong suppliers or the wrong process to do a job. The causes of processing waste is Engineering Changes Without Processing Changes, Decision Making at Inappropriate Levels, Inefficient Policies and Procedures, Lack of Customer Input Concerning Requirements.Toyota is famous for their use of low-cost automation, combined with immaculately maintained, often older machines. Investing in smaller, more flexible equipment where possible; creating manufacturing cells; and combining steps will greatly reduce the waste of inappropriate processing. 7. Rejects Defects:- Defects in the manufacturing process are a tremendous cost to a company. Any small defect directly impacts your bottom line and effects inventory, scheduling, inspection, and other factors. In many organizations the total cost of defects is often a significant percentage of total manufacturing cost. Through employee involvement and Continuous Process Improvement (CPI), there is a huge opportunity to reduce defects at many facilities. 5s’s 5S efforts almost always improve workplace safety, operator morale, quality, and throughput. A workplace organization tool/process that maximizes the cleanliness, organization, and safety of all elements in a working environment. 5S supports a smooth production process in various ways. Searching for tools is eliminated, flow principles are applied, and tools storage is done where they are needed most. Location indicators visualise how things have been organised, and non conformities are seen at once. The 5S method improves employees’ ownership and leads to substantial quality improvement, cost reduction as well as product and process safety The individual items within 5S are known as the â€Å"pillars† and are: 1. Sort: – Clearing the work area. Any work area should only have the items needed to perform the work in the area. All other items should be cleared (sorted out) from the work area. It has been variously anglicised as Sort, Systematisation or Simplify by those wishing to retain the S as the initial letter of each element. It is the series of steps by which we identify things which are being held in the workplace when they shouldn’t, or are being held in the wrong place. Put simply, we may identify a large area devoted to tools or gauges, some of which are needed regularly and some used infrequently. This brings all sorts of problems, including: Operators unable to find the item they need, being unable to see wood for trees. The time spent searching is a waste and if we only held the items needed regularly in a prominent position we would save time. Quality issues when gauges are not calibrated on time because too many are held. Safety issues when people fall over things. Lockers and racking cluttering the workplace making it hard to move around or to see each other and communicate. ( accessed on 10th June 2011) 2. Set: – Designating locations. Everything in the work area should have a place and everything should be in its place. Set is the series of steps by which the most favourable organisation identified in the first pillar are put into place. The standard translation is Orderliness but again some wish to keep the initial S and use Sort Set in order, Straighten and Standardisation. The sorting out process is essentially a continuation of that described in the Set phase. Removing items to be discarded or held in an alternative location will create space. This space will be visible and facilitate the alternative layout of the area. 3. Shine: – Cleanliness workplace appearance. Not only should the work area be clear, it should also be clean. Cleanliness involves housekeeping efforts, improving the appearance of the work area, and even more importantly, preventive housekeeping – keeping the work area from getting dirty, rather than just cleaning it up after it becomes dirty. 4. Standardize:- Everyone doing things the same way. Everyone in the work area and in the organization must be involved in the 5S effort, creating best practices and then getting everyone to â€Å"copy† those best practices the same way, everywhere, and every time. Work area layouts and storage techniques should be standardized wherever possible. Standardisation includes all the elements of setting out a consistent way of doing things. This includes standard manufacturing methodologies, standard equipment and tooling, component rationalisation, drawing standardisation, consistency in the documentation which accompanies work, design for manufacture (or concurrent engineering) and standardisation in the clerical processes which deliver work to the shop floor and track its progress. 5. Sustain:-The final stage is that of Discipline often listed as Sustain or Self-discipline. Ingraining the 5S’s into the culture. It’s tough to keep a 5S effort, or any improvement effort for that matter, going. The 5S’s involve a culture change. And to achieve a culture change, it has to be ingrained into the organization – by everyone at all levels in the organization. ( accessed on 10th June 2011) JIT II JIT II is a way to improve the customer-supplier relationship. JIT II uses â€Å"systems integration† which allows, â€Å"sharing of information so that the relationship is more like a partnership† (Pragman 1996). Essentially this equals more and more visibility throughout the supply chain, which equals better responsiveness and lower costs, the two main goals of supply chain management. â€Å"JIT II, a customer-supplier partnership concept pioneered at Bose Corporation and now practiced by major companies and their suppliers, can aid in cutting both design and response lead time† (Pragman 1996). This is talented through systems combination, which seeks ways to improve coordination between different functional areas, as well as bridges the gap between customer and supplier. With JIT II the suppliers have a person within the customer’s organization full time acting as a purchasing department employee for the customer firm. JIT II has really impacted the following areas: â€Å"the administration of the purchasing function, logistics, concurrent engineering and value analysis and material stores and support services. In each of these areas the lead time reductions are greater with JIT II than with conventional JIT† (Pragman 1996). The administrative benefits of JIT II are due to the fact that the supplier is constantly available in-house. JIT II reduces administrative costs for both the customer and supplier because the purchasing costs are not all on the customer and the supplier gets all the business from that specific customer as it wants as long as things go well. Because the supplier is always present â€Å"JIT II permits concurrent engineering and value analysis to take place on an ongoing basis, not just during sporadic sales calls† (Pragman 1996). Challenges in JIT Concept There are two major challenges faced in Just – In – Time concept, they are cultural difference, stress on workers, transportation and estimation. 1) Transportation: The main motto or aim in Just – In – Time is to reduce/ minimise the inventory. Just – In – Time follows different system, in which raw materials order is placed to the suppliers when demand increases from the customers, these raw material then delivered from the suppliers to the manufacturing plant in a right time at a right place, when the raw material is received initially assembling process take place and finally finished products are being delivered to the customer. This process is like chain flow, to have a proper flow transportation place a major role and some companies are careful to use two or more suppliers for most of their assemblies. There are several challenges which are connected in transportation. When the order is placed to the suppliers, it is their responsibility to deliver the raw material to the manufacturing plant in actual time at exact place. While transporting there are many chances of accident, for example: when the raw material is being exported from one country to another country through shipping. Delay in delivering goods because of traffic, climatic condition and crossing country borders, for example: as India is highly populated lots of time is consumed in traffic (Roadways), delay in climate condition occur while transferring goods through airways and checking of documents passing clearness for the goods travelling from one country’s border to another country this may also consume lots of time. In case, if any problem occurs in transportation the whole system is to be shut and finally resulting in loss of money, customer’s satisfaction increase in Inventory (Stock). 2) Estimation: Most of the companies or firm suffer because of the word estimation/ prediction. In this system without any demand from the customer the manufacturing unit starts producing good and place bulk orders to the suppliers. Finally when the raw materials are converted into finishes goods there won’t be customers to purchase it this may led to increase in inventory. And in some companies, manufacturing unit collects limited raw material and produce limited finishes good but the customer demand will be high. So these companies suffer by loosing lots of customer. In this case company suffers from two major problem one is excess of finished product which result in high inventory or stock and another problem is shortage of finished product which lead to loss of customer. How Toyota Implemented Just in Time: Challenges Faced and Results The major challenges faced by Toyota in implementing JIT included Multi-skilling the workforce to operate multiple machines based on work-flow patterns Redesigning every part of the vehicle to eliminate or widen tolerance since assembly lines did not have a choice of which parts to use and every part had to fit perfectly Testing and training suppliers of parts to assure quality and delivery in time on demand (, Accessed on 14th May 2011) Factories today just aren’t as efficient as they could be. JIT asserts that companies operate under the wrong ideas. The ideas, while logical, result in needless waste. Particularly, JIT challenges the following: As companies grow, functions tend to become specialized. Factory organization separates fabrication, assembly, shipping, and so on. But departmental production lacks synchronization. Bottlenecks form and cause large in-process inventory and long lead times. Finger pointing between departments to avoid responsibility abounds. (, Accessed on 14th May 2011) Produce to forecast. Forecasts, in varying degrees of sophistication, â€Å"push† production, in contrast to production being â€Å"pulled† by customers. Even the most sophisticated forecast isn’t right; differences inevitably wind up in inventory. (, Accessed on 14th May 2011) Operations environments in which JiT is most useful The JIT philosophy has been used in the manufacturing industry for about forty to fifty years now, the system has not only increased productivity but also increased the quality of products, explorative studies have been completed in recent years to see if the JIT system can be applied to construction companies so that they can get the benefits of the system. Most of the research concluded that it can be implemented but with some modifications Pheng Hui (1998) As stated earlier JIT has proven to work well in the manufacturing sector, it is obvious why it is successful in the manufacturing sector, as it originated from a manufacturing industry. The concept Just – In – Time used in the following companies: Toyota Motor Company General Motors Ford Motor Company Harley Davidson Manufacturing Magic Hawthorne Management Consulting Dell Computers. (Source: Concept (Accessed on 10th June 2011) Just – In – Time (JIT) Used in Dell: Dell has also leveraged JIT principles to make its manufacturing process a success. Dell’s approach to JIT is different in that they leverage their suppliers to achieve the JIT goal. They are also unique in that Dell is able to provide exceptionally short lead times to their customers, by forcing their suppliers to carry inventory instead of carrying it themselves and then demanding (and receiving) short lead times on components so that products can be simply assembled by Dell quickly and then shipped to the customer. Important factors to Dell’s success: Dependable suppliers with the ability to meet Dell are demanding lead time requirements. A seamless system that allows Dell to transmit its component requirements so that they will arrive at Dell in time to fulfil its lead times. A willingness of suppliers to keep inventory on hand allowing Dell to be free of this responsibility. (Source: (Accessed on 10th June 2011) Just – In – Time (JIT) Used in Harley Davidson: Harley Davidson’s use of JIT is mostly characterized by its transformation in the late World War 2 era from an inefficient manufacturer that solved all of its problems with extra inventory to a nimble manufacturer able to meet demand and provide short lead times. Results of Harley Davidson’s JIT implementation: Inventory levels decreased 75%. Increased productivity. Harley Davidson’s success with the implementation of JIT had a lot to do with the fact that when JIT was put into practice, process problems could no longer be hidden by costly inventory that helped to meet ship dates. The inefficiencies in the processes were quickly identified and solved. (Source: (Accessed on 10th June 2011) Toyota, Dell and Harley Davidson’s are the successful companies/ firm which use Just – In – Time (JIT). They produce the effective products according to the customer needs and they these three companies have achieved a competitive advantage within the industries by utilizing Just – In – Process (JIT) concept. Operations environments in which JiT is most less useful The Just – In – Time (JIT) concept is used and being useful in many of the firms/Industries especially in manufacturing sectors. But there are some companies were Just – In – Time (JIT) concept cannot be adopted, like drug/medicine manufacturing companies and in the pharmaceutical companies. Just – In –Time (JIT) is all about minimising or reducing the inventories, this concept will not be applicable in these companies. In this case manufacturing sector cannot predict like sickness, spread of deceases, accident and natural calamities. In this field people cannot demand for the product often, then it won’t be possible for the manufacture to place order for the raw materials from suppliers, next is assembling process and finally it is impossible to deliver the finished product to the customer at the right time in the right place, mean time the person may die. In this particular sector there must be a large bulk of inventories, the process should be in a continuous flow and Just – In – Time is impossible to implement. Just – In – Time (JIT) would not necessarily improve a drug company’s bottom line. Making all pharmaceutical manufacturing processes robust enough that you can do JIT might not be a good business decision because it might cost you more to make the process robust and get it reregistered than the value of having reduced inventory. On the other hand, generic-drug companies might be more eager to adopt Just – In – Time (JIT) manufacturing than innovato r companies. Generic-drug manufacturers are more prone to driving manufacturing innovation to reduce cost because their margins are razor thin compared with the branded products, which provides advisory services in the global supply chain and enabling technology. A drug maker would not necessarily achieve the same level of success with Just – In – Time (JIT) manufacturing as a carmaker has, and it would be misguided for a drug company to adopt JIT principles just because it works for Toyota, Dell and Harley Davidson’s. Financial and manufacturing considerations are different in the pharmaceutical and automotive industries. JIT principles that work for a carmaker might not be appropriate for all drug-production processes. (Source: Is JIT Manufacturing the Right Prescription, by Erik Greb, pharmaceutical technology, Volume 33, Issue 3, PP. 72-78) CHANGES THAT MIGHT IMPROVE JIT IN THEORY /PRACTICE Researchers such as Crawford et al (1988) suggested that an obvious aspect for successful implementation of JIT is the commitment of sufficiently large resources in education and training to overcome the cultural resistance to change. Secondly they stated that the JIT implementation requires that the company focus on total quality control and total preventive maintenance in the early stages of implementation process, both these steps are needed in order to consistently perform to schedule. Other indicated actions to ensure performance to schedule include cross training workers and stabilizing the master production schedule. Conclusion Just-in-time manufacturing can be a positive influence on a company. However there are many risks associated with attempting to implement JIT manufacturing techniques. When looked at it appears to be a very simple, quick, and easy thing to do. In reality it is a very complicated technique that takes long term commitment and a initial cost with no guarantee of success. The most important thing for the company is to have good organized resource allocation. Also, the management and employees must have on their mind that this concept can help the organization to solve many problems in logistics. If implemented successfully it would eliminate waste, make the company more productive and more efficient. It does this through shorter transportation and increased communication. Although there are many companies that are successful, many companies are not. Even though there are massive risks many still consider implementing JIT for it many advantages. The JIT concept is only one part in the value chain that brings the satisfaction to the customers. It means that the JIT concept cannot must solve existing problems in other organization processes. Everything in enterprises is needed to be healthy, through the hierarchy of employees and all workflow processes. Synergy is the only thing that can improve business results. And in the bottom line, the JIT concept is just one link in the whole chain, but very important. Reference: Donald Waters (2002) Operations Management Producing Goods and Services (second edition) London: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Pragman, Claudia. â€Å"JIT II: a purchasing concept for reducing lead times in time-based competition. (just-in-time management).† Business Horizons, July-August 1996 v39 n4 p54(5). (Accessed on 10 June 2011)) Slack, N., Chambers, S., Johnston, R. (2007). Operations Management (5th ed.). London: Financial Times Prentice Hall. on 10th May 2011))–is-it-effective.aspx (Accessed on 10th May 2011) The concept again by collocating supplier and customer, by Schonberger Gilbert (1983) and Pheng Hui (1998) (Accessed on 10th June 2011) Is JIT Manufacturing the Right Prescription, by Erik Greb, pharmaceutical technology, Volume 33, Issue 3, PP. 72-78;col1 (Accessed on 10th June 2011) How to cite Analysis of Just in time production methods, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Team Building and Team Development

Table of Contents Introduction First and Second Stage Norm Stage Justification of the Opinion Expectations Conclusions Introduction The stages of team development are formation state, storming, normalizing, performing and transforming stages. Each of these stages has a special challenge especially for a group of people who are struggling to function as a unit. Some unique or special features/actions particularly from the individual entities strengthen the cohesive forces that ought to guide team members towards a team mission.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Team Building and Team Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More First and Second Stage According to Guttman (2008), the first stage of formation involves coming together to form a group that has a shared vision or mission. The group aims at mainly accomplishing a certain purpose. The second stage of storming emerges because the team members get to kn ow each other, but may have some conflicting views that can stain the relationship. For instance, they may fail to agree on the procedures to follow towards attaining the set goals or disagree against the set vision /mission of a firm. The case sample of members of a medical facility has passed these two stages. Norm Stage The norm stage is progressive since members are able to share ideas and form working relationships that cater for the team’s objectives and progress. The current team has harmonized its prior strained or competitive relationships. It is thus able to work harmoniously towards development goals. However, some cohesiveness of the team still lacks some collaboration, thus the reason it is still in the norm stage. The team has to attain the next stage of the development life cycle, which is the performing stage. The team lacks strong collaboration and team unity thus affecting harmonization. Lack of synchronization in the team is thus the reason why members or team leaders fails to bring out a successful functioning team. Justification of the Opinion A new colleague joining the team at this stage must expect to meet members who can either cause team conflicts or enforce work harmony. The members may also feel secure and express their opinions freely due to existing spirit of responsiveness, kindness and affirmation. Openness and members cooperation also promotes members’ listening skill. By listening to one another, they are able to understand the importance of maintaining an effective form of communication. They have various measures of enhancing communication as an effective tool of combating conflicts or disagreements. Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The working techniques and strategies are well established. The reason for easy establishment is due to collaboration and as a result, members are in a position to choose a leader amongst them and establish the role of each affiliate. However, effective performance often fails to take place due to lack of enough trust or honesty among members. The team is thus not yet reasonable, since there are no evident justifiable procedures to quantify the team. Expectations In line with Boone and Kurtz (2010), a real team in the performing stage is very effective and productive. The members act honestly with each other, thus strengthening their interaction and ability to have synchronized objectives for success. The members of this team at a medical facility also lack confidence and members may fail to believe that the group is strong enough for anticipated success. Member’s collaboration still fails to trigger personal impressions that their team is the best and the most successful experience. At the initial stages of development, a team is expected to engage members to pursue goals or projects. Conclusions The new member should also understand that h is/her presence might cause either progression to the next stage or regression to previous stage. The progress therefore depends on experience and skills of the team members. At this stage, the team cannot analyze their current performance level and have a basis for future projections. The team always disbands after accomplishing goals, but it is a difficult process due to the already formed strong links between members. Perhaps one question that can assist in analysis of the stage would be how fast or easy the team can break up. This essay on Team Building and Team Development was written and submitted by user Karissa A. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Exploratory Essay on Immigration

Exploratory Essay on Immigration Exploratory Essay on Immigration Immigration into the USA has recently become a contentious issue in the national debate. Democrats and Republicans have clashed with each other, and with the White House. Republicans have clashed with Republicans as well. Why is immigration such a problem to a country that was founded on immigrants, and has inscribed â€Å"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.† on their famous Statue of Liberty. There are several reasons that emerge in the debate. The historical source of immigrants and national identity is a main one. The original immigrants to the USA were in fact Anglo Saxon Protestants. As their national identity grew, they saw themselves as a Christian, Protestant, English speaking people and nation. As further waves of immigrants arrived, they were, if not Anglo Saxon, primarily western European, and Christian and mostly willing to learn English, and be absorbed into the American way. Even when the Irish, Italians and Polish made their way to the USA, although Catholic they were Europeans, who fit into the predominantly Anglo Saxon American identity. They were minorities, who learned English and accepted the status quo. Also, many of them brought needed skills to the country. This was a major factor of the sense of national identity, America was white, English and Protestant. The latent racial superiority overtones were only observed openly with regard to the African American slaves. However, as they were slaves and a small minority they were tolerated, if not welcomed. It is this that is driving some of the resistance to current immigration. The source of the new wave of immigrants is not European, or Anglo Saxon. Rather the main groups of immigrants are Latin Americans coming from South America, and the Caribbean island. They are predominantly Spanish speaking, unskilled, and Catholic, and arriving in great numbers. This threatens the national identity in various ways. The threat they pose to the original immigrants is first in the sheer magnitude of their numbers. In California, Texas, and Florida for example. This threatens to change the whole culture of these and other states. Instead of being absorbed into the American culture, learning English and providing skills, they are demanding education in Spanish for their children, and the majority has poor education, no English, few skills and no resources. Known as Hispanics there are about 50 million in the USA. Only Mexico has more. In the period 2010- 11 their numbers in the USA rose by 2.8 million. It is projected in 50 years time the Hispanics will constitute a third of the population of the USA. (U.S. Census Burea). It is this that has the Republicans concerned. With such numbers preferring to speak Spanish, be educated in Spanish, and keep their Catholic religion their immigration is seen as colonization. Their lack of skill and resources as a drain on social security, medical and educational resources. The massive amount of illegal immigrants already in the country is another problem. About 11 million are currently living in the USA illegally. To Republicans they are lawbreakers, criminals who need to be deported, not supported. Others say reality dictates they must be given legal status because it is impossible to arrest and deport them. Plus many have children that were born in the USA, are in schools, and see themselves as Americans. It is because of such complexities that immigration is such a contentious subject in the USA today. There seems to be no easy solution to the question of immigration into the USA, whether legal or illegal. Tips on writing: Exploratory essays ask questions to gather and share information on the topic about immigration. It is not necessary to find answers. Introductions for exploratory essays are broad, as you are making an inquiry into a topic, not proving a thesis. Present the topic and the questions you will ask. State your research question clearly state what you want to discover, and why. Identify the issue, its causes and other factors of immigration. Identify decision makers and other interested parties. You do not have to supply solutions as the paper is for the purpose of identifying the problem. If it happens that you need custom exploratory essays on immigration contact our professional writing company.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Editing Paper Term

Editing Paper Term Editing Paper Term Editing Paper Term: What Is It? Have you ever wondering what is editing? Imagine you are writer. You full of ideas and great numbers of exciting plots are there in your head. However, great writer skills will be needed to edit it any way you like. Afterwords you show it to one of our qualify member who tell you what needs to be done. You agree with that and send it off to them, for them to edit and revise some parts. You also need to provide details of what needs to be edited for you to meet your requirements, as you and the writer may have different visions. Editing Paper Term: Checking. When you started to work, you have already done part of your paper term, you should check it. There must be some mistakes. If you are tired and have no efforts to do it, you should use editing paper term service. They know how to cope with difficulties. We were students too and we both know what it feels like to write easy term paper topics when you do not understand meaning and you cannot c atch the main idea. Yes, it is very unpleasant thing to realize that there are such topics you are not competent. And here you recall each brilliant situation when you enjoyed yours dedication to the issue. All your friends and all witnesses of such situations were proud of you. You impressed them by your intelligence and a huge experience. Pleasant feelings and emotions, do not they? However, difficulties occur. Thus is an inescapable fact. Editing Paper Term: AdvicesCheck the realness of facts you are describing Check the size and correct academia style Try to avoid abbreviates Try to express your thought clearlyTerm Paper Editing Help If you need professional help with term paper editing, we are ready to help you! Our team consists of experienced term paper writers and editors, who are able to impress you with exceptional work and immediate results! We do not compromise on quality, and there is no room for plagiarism! You will be satisfied with our term paper editing h elp. If not we will give your money back! From grammar to formatting, from additional quotations to overall flow, no stone will be left unturned! Our term paper editors are responsible, trained, and experienced. There is no assignment we cannot handle. Every term paper we work on becomes a masterpiece of written word!